Solar Storms and Space Weather
Magnetic Active regions
Figure 1: Candidates for solar storms. Tracked by HMI onboard SDO (SHARP). Computation of magnetic complexity for the marked active regions on solar surface makes forecasts of solar storms possible
Figure 2: Solar flares observed with AIA in 304 Å onboard SDO. The bright regions are heated areas due to solar flares: electromagnetic radiation solar storms
Coronal Mass Ejections
Figure 3: Coronal Mass Ejections Observed with LASCO C3 coronagraph onboard SOHO. The white clouds expanding beyond the covered Sun are solar storm mass ejections. Accelerated protons look like snow in images.
Figure 4: Coronal holes with AIA in 193 Å onboard SDO. The dark areas show coronal holes from where the fast solar wind streams
D-Region Absorption Prediction
Figure 6: The Global D-Region Absorption Prediction. This global map indicate the highest frequency affected by absorption of 1 dB due to either solar X-ray flux or SEP events or a combination of both (NOAA/SWPC)
Figure 7: Solar Wind measured at L1 by ACE and the forecasted geomagnetic storm Kp index. Measurements of the solar wind velocity, density and southward magnetic field, observed 1.5x106km ahead of Earth by ACE, makes 3 hours ahead forecasts of geomagnetic storms (Kp>=5) possible.
Figure 8: Solar Wind measured at L1 by ACE and forecasts of geomagnetic storms (Dst index<=-50nT).